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Victoriana A To V

By Dawn Aiello of Victorian Lace, Author and Copyright owner of this article
Prince Albert & Queen Victoria

Though the years 1837 through 1901 are commonly referred to as "The Victorian "Era, the culture and customs of this period remained in America for years beyond Queen Victoria's reign -- actually, until the onset of World War I in 1914. Fascination with the Victorian Era, however, has always been widespread. Because it was a time when quick and constant changes were taking place in the world, and also because Victorian society tended to be a bit "object-oriented", there were many intriguing innovations, inventions, customs, and fashions which came and went, yet when put into historical perspective, define what life was like in the Victorian Era.

Albert, The Prince Consort:

Queen Victoria's first cousin, whom she married in 1840. Victoria adored him, and she depended upon him as her most trusted adviser and private secretary. The practice of 'ruling" never really appealed to the Queen, and she actually never made a decision without conferring with Albert. He may not have been the actual power behind the throne, but he was definitely a powerful influence upon it. he excelled in matters of taste, and eventually, he educated not only the Queen, but all of England, about art and music. the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851, which was a tribute to England's -- and the world's -- achievements, was his concept. he continued to promote the arts, as well as science and industry, throughout his life. Albert died quite suddenly in 1861, and his loving Victoria remained in mourning for the remainder of her life.

Argand Burner:

A lighting device which was invented by--and named for--Aime Argand, of France. The Argand burner burned whale oil, or colza oil, and differed from other burners in the way it allowed air to circulate to the inner and outer surface of a tubular wick. Not only were Argand burners less smoky than other lamps of the period, but with the addition of a glass shade, the quality of light was improved dramatically.

Astral Lamp:

Patented in France in 1809, the Astral Lamp was noted for its beautifully etched- and cut-glass shades, which gave off a 'star-like" affect which the French called "astral light". The lamps used Argand burners, but compared with earlier Argand lamps, shadows from astral lamps were greatly reduced due to the placement of its fuel reservoir.

Bed Chambers:

In general, bedrooms were the most private rooms of the house, and therefore, not nearly as fancy as the public rooms downstairs. A basic set of "chamber furniture" would have included a bed, a wardrobe or armoire, a bureau or dressing table, and a washstand. Late Victorians enjoyed the four-poster style bed, but brass beds were also very popular, as they were considered to be the most hygienic beds. Often, these beds were painted in bright colors. Small children spent most of their time in the nursery, which was a separate room, far away from the public rooms.

Beau Brummel Look:

An English gentleman named Beau Brummel changed the way that men dressed in the early 19th century, and his "look" became a most popular style for men. It consisted of an unpatterned suit with a short waist coat, a coat with tails, long tight pantaloons, and a top hat. The suits were made in conservative colors such as tan, green, brown, blue, gray, and black. Imagine in your mind, a picture of Charles Dickens' "David Copperfield", and you'll have the right idea of "The Beau Brummel Look". (Actually, the style is similar to the above "ear trumpet" picture....just add a top hat!) The style quickly spread across Europe and North America, and Beau Brummel's influence can even still be seen today in the colors of men's suits.


Named after "Amelia Bloomer", they were baggy trousers which gathered at the ankle, and were worn under a calf-length dress. Bloomers were most popular in the 1860s.


The upper part of a dress, or the fitted blouse-like garment that was worn with a skirt.


Men's pants, which extended to just below the knees, and were often worn with suspenders. Most popular in the 18th century, but went out of style during the 19th century when pantaloons and trousers became more common.

The Bustle

The bustle, which replaced the "hoopskirt" (see more about hoops under "crinolines"), was a framework of metal, braided wire, and whalebone. It fastened to the back of the corset at the waistline to expand and support the heavy and voluminous drapery of the skirts worn during the era. Bustles made it impossible for women to bend over, or to even sit in a chair! Chairs with wider seats were devised just to accommodate the bustle fashions, which lasted for nearly 20 years. Eventually, the bustle got smaller, and finally disappeared all together in the 1890s. By the 1870s, the bustle replaced the crinoline in popularity. Bustles were worn to fill out the back of a skirt, giving the woman a "big-bottomed" look, and thereby making her appear to have an even smaller waist

Calling Cards:

Etiquette mandated that Victorian ladies pay visits or social calls to each other, and "calling cards" (similar to business cards today), were necessary to keep track of these visits. There was an entire ritual of rules that pertained to social calls and the use of calling cards. For example, in most cases, there were specific visiting hours during which guests could visit. Each caller was to leave a calling card in the 'card receiver" on the entry hall table. This way, not only the hostess, but other callers as well, could see who had been there. If the woman of the house was not at home at the time of the caller's visit, the caller would leave her card with the servant, turning down one corner of the card to indicated that it was delivered in person. Calling cards were used to announce every important event, from weddings, to birth announcements, to deaths. it was customary that ten days following a funeral, visitors should leave calling cards with handwritten messages on them. Then, when the survivors were emotionally ready to receive guests, they would send out black-bordered cards. The thickness of the border indicated the relationship to the deceased. As time passed, the border became thinner and thinner, no matter the relationship, until at last, it disappeared all together.


During the end of the 19th century, women wore a short-sleeved undershirt called a "camisole". By this time, women's clothing was becoming a little more relaxed and casual, and although women continued to wear corsets, the camisole was, by comparison, much more loose and comfortable.

Ceiling Designs:

It seems that, during the Victorian era, people were as much concerned about decorating their ceiling as they were with all other aspects of their home. Every surface of a Victorian home was used as if it were a painter's canvas. In the very ornate homes, ceilings were sometimes hand-stenciled in designs of gold and silver, or they might even have been hand-painted by well-known artists. In less spectacular homes, ceiling decoration was equally as important, but achieved with wallpaper or decorative plaster. It was generally agreed that ceiling decoration expanded the perceived height of the room, and often, fluffy white clouds were painted on blue backgrounds to give the effect of the sky or the heavens.

Chamber Sets:

Every Victorian bedroom had a washstand and a chamber set. The chamber set consisted of a washbowl and a pitcher, soap dish, shaving mug, toothbrush holder, and of course, the camber pot, used for night-time emergencies. Sets were made from a full range of pottery: stoneware, ironstone, Rockingham, and earthenware.


A hairstyle that was most popular during the mid-19th century. Hair was tied at the back of the head in a cluster of braids, curls, ringlets, and loops. The style was so popular that many women wore false chignons which could simply be pinned into their own hair at any time.

Christmas Cards:

Is it surprising that the first Christmas cards were created during the Victorian era? Sir Henry Cole of England commissioned artist John Calcott Horsely to illustrate the first Christmas card in 1843. One thousand copies were made of the card so that Cole could send them to his closest friends. The card was illustrated with Dickens-type figures, and contained the simple message:
"Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to You".

Coming Out:

Some parents held "Coming Out Parties" to present their daughters to society and to introduce them to unmarried men. The age for a young woman's coming out was when she turned sixteen. She was now considered ready to date (or to be "courted"). These parties were actually formal balls because coming out was considered by some to be one of the most important events in a girl's life.


For some women of the Victorian era, corset-wearing began at a young age. There were as many different types of corsets as thee were occasions to wear one. Corsets were highly fashionable, as well as being highly injurious to one's health. To achieve a wasp-like figure, women laced themselves up into corsets made of whale bone and steel, so that their waists would be cinched into only 15 or so inches. This naturally made breathing difficult, not to mention the difficulties of sitting, bending, and even walking.


The purpose of the crinoline or hoopskirt was to flare the skirts of ladies' dresses without utilizing layers and layers of petticoats. However, to move about in the large, heavy cages, was difficult to say the least. They took up a lot of space and made it nearly impossible to sit down or to get through a door. Moreover, they were not fireproof, and occasionally, women caught on fire when passing near the stove or while dancing in a candlelit ballroom! Also, crinolines soiled easily, and worse still---they rusted! However, women enjoyed wearing them as they provided an indication of wealth---the larger the hoop, the more yards of costly material needed to cover it. Gentlemen also admired this fashion, and hoopskirts held their greatest popularity (as well as their greatest width) during the Civil War. Invented in the 1849s, crinolines were hooped petticoats which gave skirts a domed shape. Later they developed into a light metal cage, and the fashionable hoops became quite large. Hoop skirts were popular until the 1870s when finally they were replaced by closer-fitting skirts.


Frenchman, Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre (1789 - 1851) introduced the first practical photographic process. However, the first daguerreotypes were expensive and quite fragile. Images could be easily erased. People enjoyed the new type of photography though, and often carried their daguerreotypes with them in the way people carry wallet photos today. Snapshot-size daguerreotypes were placed under glass, framed in brass, and carried in leather cases. By the 1850s, two other alternatives to the daguerreotypes existed, which were more durable. Frederick Scott Archer created the "ambrotype" and the "ferrotype", which was more commonly referred to as a 'tintype".

Doors & Entrances:

Because the first detail of a home that was seen by Victorian visitors was the porch, front door, and entry, these features set the first impression, and it was essential that they set the best one. Porches and entries should not be pretentious, but were considered the principle feature of the house. Porches were usually decorated in the style of the house. Entrances were also decorated with brass letter slots or postboxes, bell pulls, door knockers, and other ornamental hardware. Transoms and sidelights, as well as the glass in the door, could be plain or stained-glass, transfer-printed, etched, engraved, or beveled. Also, it was common to find an ornamental (but quite functional) boot scraper. As Victorian streets were not paved, a boot scraper was essential in keeping mud from being tracked into the home.


Drawers were short, flesh-colored ruffled underpants that gathered at the knees and were tied at the waist. For winter, drawers were made of fine wool, and for summer, they were made of cotton. First popular during the 1830s, drawers have been worn by women, in different forms, ever since.

Ear Trumpets:

An ear trumpet was a large metal cone, shaped like a Cornicopia, that was used as a Victorian Era hearing aid. Ear trumpets were first used by sailors who needed to communicate over great distances, and then were later adopted by the hearing impaired. There was a full range of models from the cheap to the expensive, but the more expensive models didn't necessarily work better than the less expensive ones. Effectiveness seemed to depend more on the user, and the actual ear trumpet, plus quite a bit of trial and error.


A row of pleated or gathered material used to decorate women's dresses. During the 1850s lace dresses were very popular for formal occasions. They would have had a fitted bodice, with long, flounced skirts.

Frock Coat:

The frock coat was a long suit coat that resembled an overcoat. Worn by men, it was a long, full coat with flared "skirts".


Gaiters were canvas leggings that strapped over the top of the shoe and buttoned up the side or the front of the leg. Both men and women wore gaiters to protect their shoes, pants, or stockings from mud.


(See "Crinolines")

Morning Coat:

For Victorian men, the morning coat was quite popular, both for day wear as well as evening wear. It was short in the front with long tails in the back.

Fashions of the Era:


During the middle of the century, farmers began wearing "pantaloons" that were held up by suspenders. By the end of the century, however, these pantaloons developed into a type of "overalls". Once this evolution took place, the term "pantaloons" would then describe a different type of pants for men. "Pantaloons" referred to a pant that was similar to "tights". They were tight-fitting, and had a stirrup on the bottom of the leg that fit beneath the shoe or boot. Pantaloons were very popular among refined gentlemen, but near the end of the century, "trousers" with creases down the front and the back became the fashionable style.


A petticoat was a type of skirt (similar to what we call a "slip" today) that was worn under dresses and regular skirts. They were usually made of cotton, silk, or flannel. Some were simple and plain, while others had either a built-in bustle, or else layers of ruffles.


Throughout the 19th century, young girls wore aprons or "pinafores" to protect their dresses. An apron tied around the waist, while a pinafore hung from the shoulders and actually covered most of the dress.

Princess Dress:

The Princess Dress was a very popular gown in the 1860s. It was a one-piece dress that had a tight bodice and a hooped skirt. It was a floor-length dress, and it buttoned all the way from top to bottom.


Though called a "coat", a waistcoat was actually more like a "vest", and sometimes a vest could even double as a waistcoat. It could be either single or double breasted, and usually had two small pockets in the front for the gentle-man's pocketwatch and fob. (A "fob" is an ornament that was attached to the end of a watch chain). Zouave Suit:

Clothing for little boys was fairly simple. Basically, an outfit for a young boy consisted of trousers, a cotton shirt, and a cap. But, during the middle 1800s, it became popular to dress boys in fancy clothes such as "sailor suits", with large collars and a bow in the front. "Scottish kilts" and "tams" (a round Scottish cap with a wool or feather bobble in the center) also became fashionable. Most popular, however, was the "Zouave Suit", which had breeches and a short jacket decorated with a braid. A shirt with a small, straight collar was usually worn under the suit. This style remained fashionable throughout the remainder of the century.


Gaslights were a vast improvement over candles and kerosene lamps, but when they were first popularized, it was not felt that they were dependable. A few wealthy families in Baltimore had piped-in gas from central factories as early as 1821, and by the 1830s, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston also had piped-in gas lighting. Philadelphia's gaslight system included over 700 customers by 1836, and by 1875, most large towns and all citizens enjoyed the luxuries of piped-in gas, however, cooking with gas did not begin until the 1880s.

The Gibson Girl:

Illustrator Charles Dana Gibson introduced his famous "Gibson Girl" in 1890, in Life magazine, and within a few years, she had become a national sensation. She was beautiful, tall, and slim. She was high-class, elegant, and just a tad bit haughty with a slight tilt of her head. She was the American ideal, and she represented not only a new look for women, but a new role for them, as well. The Gibson Girl was in control, and she was comfortable. Still, though she was able to shed a lot of her inhibitions, she was not able to shed her corset!


Fashion etiquette mandated that women wear gloves when they went out in public--typically, white tight-fitting kidskin gloves that were fastened by up to one hundred tiny buttons. As advice was given about most issues during the Victorian era, so was it given with respect to gloves--how to buy them, how to get them on, etc. Advice from Lillian Russell, (an actress who popularized shoulder-lenth, twenty-button gloves) suggested allowing at least one half-hour to squeeze each hand into the tight leather. Shopping for gloves could take hours.

First, hands were powdered with talcum, then a glove stretcher (which resembles an old-fashioned curling iron) was placed in each finger of the glove to stretch the leather. At this point, servants were useful, and with lots of pushing and pulling, the hand would finally somehow fit into the glove. Finally, a special hook would then be used to fasten all the buttons. When at last the lady finally had the gloves on, she then only had to worry about getting them off! (As well as keeping them from getting dirty!)

Hair Jewelry:

By today's standards, Victorians were extremely sentimental, and mementos of their loved ones were held very dear. Victorians longed to keep a connection with their dearly departed loved ones, and hair art was a popular way to achieve this feeling. Hair was lightweight, but at the same time, it was pliable and tough, and it could be woven and braided into jewelry--brooches, bracelets, and necklaces, as well as into wreaths, or pictures placed into shadowboxes. For example, when Albert died, Queen Victoria clung more tenderly to a bracelet that contained not only a portrait of him, but a lock of his hair as well. Hair was not only used in mourning jewelry, however. It was often woven by mothers who then placed it inside a special locket and gave it to their daughters, or sometimes, young women would present suitors with a gift of this type. It was not uncommon for the hair of several members of a family to be woven in this manner, then enclosed iin glass, framed, and hung in the front parlor for all to see.

Kerosene Lighting:

After the discovery of petroleum in Pennsylvania in 1859, kerosene lighting quickly became the people's choice of lighting. Manufacturers of kerosene lamps, such as Fietz in New York, and Cornelius in Philadelphia, tried to market fancy parlor lamps and ballroom chandeliers in Gothic, Rococo, and Classical revival styles, but the majority of kerosene lamps were cheap and quite utilitarian. Thou these lamps were not necessarily ugly, they were never favored over the more fancy lamps, such as the Astral Lamps.


Victorians loved their lace, and they used it to dress not only themselves, but also their homes. Furnishings and clothing alike were decorated with fringe lace, and lace bed or table coverings were found in most Victorian homes. Machine-made lace made it possible for most every Victorian to enjoy the delicate flow of gentle lace in their homes, and on their clothing.

Magic Lantern:

Long before there were movies (with or without sound), there were "Magic Lanterns". Magic Lanterns, invented in the 17th century, were boxes that projected images from a tiny slide onto a big screen. During the Victorian era, the popularity of Magic Lanterns was astounding, and the industry was flourishing. The lanterns, themselves, were decorative, and in the 1895 Montgomery Ward & Co. Catalog, several different types and styles were available. A modest style (called "The Gloria") created a two-foot image, while a grander style (the "New York Model Sciopticon") projected pictures large enough for use in--as advertised: "Sunday schools, societies, Army Posts, home and public entertainment." One of the most popular slide series ever produced was "T'was the Night Before Christmas", and during the holidays, families would gather around the Magic Lantern to view the slides.


Unfortunately, in 1861, Queen Victoria lost both her mother and her beloved husband, Albert. Society decreed that for a period of one year, widows in deep mourning were to dress in full mourning, wearing all black, and they were not to appear in public, save only to visit very close relatives, or to attend church. In the second year, the widow could include visitation with close friends, and in the third year, "half-mourning" colors were acceptable--gray, white, and violet. While most widows could thereafter return to the world of life and color, Queen Victoria's grieving lasted for the remainder of her life.

Newel Posts:

One of the prime decorative elements in a Victorian home was the central stairway. The pillar or principle post that stood at the base of the stairs, at its most impressive point, was called "the newel post". Very grand staircases usually had two newel posts. The newel post was larger and fancier than the other balusters of the staircase, and it typically had a large rounded finial on top of it which made it easier to grasp when ascending the stairs. If the newel post did not have a finial, then it typically would have had a light instead. These lights were usually figural statues that held some type of light or torch above their head. Most held only one light, though there were some models available which held up to five lights. Occasionally, the newel post also had a secret compartment in which valuables could be hidden.

The Parlor:

The parlor was the most important room in the Victorian home, and served many purposes, ranging from decorative museum to the social focus of a family, as well as the main visitor center.

Parlor Games:

As the Victorians happened to have an etiquette for nearly every aspect of life, so were there rules and advice regarding parlor entertainment. There was an overabundance of advice manuals during the era, and by the 1850s, entire books were written on the subject of proper entertainment for the parlor. For the most part, most of these books focused on participatory games such as charades, twenty questions, tableaux, musical chairs, blind man's bluff, and I spy. However, one could as easily be advised about quieter activities such as piecing together jigsaw puzzles, solving riddles, or reading aloud.

Pianos and Organs:

Most every Victorian woman was taught to play the piano. Nothing distinguished her more than her ability to play a keyboard instrument. This was a time when huge amounts of sheet music was available, and there seemed to be a new song published for each significant event that occurred.


There was a time, prior to the Industrial Revolution, when servants were plentiful, and quite inexpensive to hire. If the rule for children was that they were to be "seen but not heard", then the rule for servants was doubly-strict, as they were to never be heard, and very rarely seen, yet they were indispensable in the upper class, sociable Victorian home.

Shoe Button Hooks:

Victorians were sticklers for detail, and that included the detail on their shoes, as well. Not only were those high-button shoes, that were so fashionable during the era, extremely difficult to wear, they were difficult to put on, too! All those tiny buttons had to be fastened with a hook called a "shoe button hook". It was similar to the "glove hook", except it was slightly longer because the buttons on shoes were a bit larger than the buttons on gloves. They were typically about six to ten inches in length, and the price for them ranged between one and eighty cents, depending on the material they were made of. For example, bone-handled button hooks sold for about five cents, while the more sought-after rosewood hooks sold for six to eight cents. It seems apparent that that since the Bloomingdale's 1886 Illustrated Catalog offered them for purchase singly or by-the-dozen, it would have been necessary to have a variety.

Spinning Wheels and Wool:

During the 19th century, wool was (as it is today) an intrical and important commodity for people. Naturally, it was used to make clothes, blankets, sweaters, mittens, etc. In some parts of the country, woolen goods were available in stores, but in the West, pioneers had to make their woolen products from scratch, and Queen Victorian enjoyed spinning wool into yarn as a sort of relaxing pastime.

Creating wool cloth was a lot of work, and it took a lot of time as well. First, the sheep would be sheared--removing all the fleece into a heap. The heap of fleece would then be washed and combed to remove dirt, burrs, and twigs. This was done by placing the fleece between two carding paddles and pulling it through the paddles again and again. It cleaned the fleece and also fluffed the fleece so that its fibers were ready to be spun into soft yarn. The wool was spun into yarn on a spinning wheel, then it was dyed outdoors in huge iron pots. The dyes which were used were made from berries or bark, and even some vegetable such as onions! Once dyed, the yarn was then woven into cloth on a loom.


For every respectable, and even the most elegant, Victorian gentleman who chewed tobacco, the spittoon (or cuspidor) was the receptacle into which he spat out the brown juice. Spittoons would have been found in every house and in every public building of the time. Most were made of brass, although some were available in red, blue, or green porcelain, also. The 1895 Montgomery War Co. Catalog offers a variety of styles, including a "protection cuspidor" that was secured to a mat twelve inches in diameter. It's principle feature was that it could not be tipped over. It sold for twenty-four cents.

Spring Cleaning:

In actuality, the Victorians performed this cleaning ritual at other times of the year as well, but for the most part, Spring was the time of rejuvenation; a time to open the windows and let the fresh air in; to make a clean start. Every inch of the house was scrubbed, dusted, shaken, or in any number of other ways--cleaned. Also, during the Victorian era, many families went off to their summer homes, so often, spring cleaning was a time to take up, beat, and store away carpets, or to cover furniture, etc., if the house was going to be "put up" during the summer months.

If the family did not go away for the summer months, and stayed in their home, then still there were numerous tasks to be taken of. Wool blankets needed to be folded and stored away, protecting them from moths and other insects. Lace curtains were taken down, washed and dried, furniture was beaten and brushed. Straw mats for the floors were scrubbed; drawers, baseboards, and other wooden surfaces were cleaned and treated with oil of cedar to keep away moths or other insects; and the list of chores went on and on. Many households had servants, but most did not, so the majority of these tasks fell the the housewife.


The stereoscope was a hand-held wooden viewer that made 3-dimensional images. A double-image card was inserted onto the stereoscopes frame, and when the viewer peered through the lenses, which magnified the image, one could relive major events in history, such as the Civil War, or the San Francisco earthquake. The stereoscope was instructive in topics of history, current events, and science, and no fashionable parlor was complete without one.


The 19th century was the era when "Taking Tea" evolved from simple afternoon refreshment into a social ritual, complete with its own rules of etiquette and a full line of accoutrements. The "taking of tea" came in several varieties, and each type of "Tea" included different menus. Here is a brief explanation of various "Teas" and their menu:

Afternoon Tea: Includes finger sandwiches (small crustless sandwiches with various different fillings), bread and butter, scones, sweets (jams, jellies, and honey), desserts, and tea.

Royal Tea: Afternoon Tea, with the addition of champagne or sherry.

Light Tea: A lighter version of Afternoon Tea, at which only scones, sweets, and tea are served.

Cream Tea: An English favorite which includes scones, jams, "clotted cream" (buttery cream that is thick enough to spread), and of course...tea.

High Tea: Often confused with "Afternoon Tea", but "High Tea" is a hearty, sit-down meal, consisting of an extensive menu of meat pies, sausage, cold cuts, breads, jam, butter, cheese, desserts, seasonal fruit, and naturally...tea! ---In addition to all this, it might even include potted fish, salads, biscuits, or crumpets, as well!

Tiffany, Louis Comfort:

Who of us has not heard about the famous "Tiffany Lamp"? Though Louis Tiffany, (whose father founded Tiffany & Co.) at first decided to be a painter, and he was technically quite good at it, he lost interest quickly. Soon after, he joined the family business, and his major contribution was made in the field of glass. The first pieces he created were church windows, but unlike other windows of the time, Tiffany's were scenes of trees and flowers, not of Saints. While at first his pieces were controversial, eventually they were accepted. He continued to experiment with, and perfect the medium of glass, applying his skill next to the making of lamps. His lamps were a huge success.

Tiffany also designed jewelry, metal ware, mosaic-work, candle-holders, and desk sets. He was considered an innovator in whatever field or medium he worked. He took over as design director of Tiffany & Co. in 1902, following his father's death. Some of Tiffany's exquisite windows are on permanent display at the metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.

Victoria, The Queen:

(1819-1901) Victoria began to rule England when she was only 18 years old, and she was on the throne for 60 years. This historical image of Victoria is one of a matronly, stodgy, cold, and sour woman, and by all accounts (including her own personal diaries) these images are a gross misconception. In fact, Victoria felt great emotion, true affection, and deep love for her family--especially her children, and of course, her beloved Albert, whom she often referred to as, "My Angel" Due to her station, it was actually Victoria, not Albert, who proposed marriage. Eventually, they had nine children: four sons and five daughters. Victoria was a concerned and loving mother, and she took great steps in her attempts to create a "normal" childhood for her children. She never really enjoyed her role as a monarch, and she would have much preferred spending more time with Albert and her children.


Website: The History
Article Name: Victoriana A-V
Author/Owner Dawn Aiello


BIBLIOGRAPHY:  This article was written and copyrighted by Dawn Aiello of Victorian Lace.
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