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1,500 In Kosher Riot In Brownsville and Manhattan Italians in Riot: 1902

Violent Demonstrations At Chief Rabbi Joseph's Funeral 1902
 Riot On A Sixth Avenue Elevated Train 1905 and Fight Over Hypnotism: A Small Riot 1909

Many Are Wounded In Brooklyn Riot 1910

Riotous Strike On Coney Lines 1911

Riot When Supply of Coal Gives Out 1917 and The Straw Hat Riot 1922

The Harlem Riot 1943

The Stonewall Police Riot: Gay Rights 1969


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Fort Columbus,  A United States military post, established in 1806 on
Governor's Island, in the harbor of New York, 1000 yards south of Manhattan



The Harlem Riot 1943

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 Go To Work As Usual

Negroes from Harlem and other Negro districts traveled to and from their work in other parts of the city yesterday, and carried on their duties without molestation.

In midtown Manhattan, Negroes went about their work as usual, although zoot- suiters, usually numerous in the Broadway district, were conspicuous by their absence.

Police Commissioner Valentine said last night the detectives of the sabotage squad were investigating reports they received before the riot that organized gangs of hoodlums from certain Southern cities had been sent here to cause trouble and had been filtering into Harlem for some time. As yet, He asserted, they have not been able to confirm the reports.

Army intelligence officers are understood to be cooperating closely with the police. A number of them were in Harlem last night under the command of Maj. William A. Sullivan, a former New York captain of detectives and a veteran of the First World War, who returned to the Army at the
beginning of this war.

The station house looked like an arsenal, with all the equipment, present needed to quell a major riot. Searchlight, loudspeaker and emergency trucks were provided by the police, M.P. Trucks by the Army, and other vehicles by the Police and Fire Departments. Heavily armed white and Negro policemen, soldiers and volunteers filled and surrounded the station house and patrolled the district, which was blocked off on all sides, with almost all traffic rerouted around it.

The police had every conceivable unit on hand, including emergency and riot squads, motor cycle and mounted men, radio car crews and detectives. Patrol wagons, ambulances and Fire Department emergency and salvage squads were present.

All over the district policemen were stationed on street corners, in hallways, on rooftops and in automobiles parked in the streets.

Mayor La Guardia, who characterized the disorders as a "shame" that had been brought down upon the City of New York made five radio broadcasts in which he called upon the law-abiding citizens of Harlem to keep off the streets, promised to protect the lives and property of all citizens, and warned hoodlum and thieves that further crime and violence would be severely dealt with. He also warned residents of other parts of the city to stay out of Harlem for the time being.

Staying on the job virtually all night Sunday and all day yesterday, and canceling a trip to Washington, the Mayor made several visits to Harlem police headquarters at the West 123d Street Station, on the fringe of the trouble area, toured the district, and held frequent conferences with police., Army officials and Negro leaders. He had only one hour's sleep which he took yesterday afternoon.

Although the Army sent in military police and trucks to evacuate all soldiers form the district, the Mayor said yesterday afternoon that the situation was under control and that there was no occasion for a declaration of martial law or for asking the military to intervene. Only through an application by Gov. Thomas E. Dewey, on the ground that the local authorities had lost control of the situation, could the Army intervene.

Governor Dewey, who was at the Roosevelt Hotel last night, kept in close touch with the situation in Harlem, but had not received any request from the Mayor to call on President Roosevelt for the Army or to mobilize the New York (State) Guard.

However, it was learned that at the Governor's direction Maj. Gen. William Ottmann, commander of the Guard, had ordered 8,000 members of the Guard to report immediately for drills in the various armories of the metropolitan area where they can be readily available for riot duty if needed. They are all from this area, including 1,500 who are now in training at Camp Smith, Peekskill, N.Y., but will arrive here today. All 8,000, including a Negro regiment with headquarters at the Fifteenth Regiment Armory at 143d Street and Fifth Avenue, will be in the armories "until further notice." They can move into action from the armories within thirty minutes.

6,000 Police Sent Into Area

The Mayor and Police Commissioner Lewis J. Valentine mobilized 6,000 policemen (about one-third of the city's force) for Harlem duty by canceling all leaves and days off and calling in foot and mounted patrolmen, motorcycle officers, radio cars and detectives from all the five boroughs. Police poured into the district all day by subway, truck, emergency car and patrol wagon. Maj. Gen. Robert M. Danford, commandant of the City Patrol Corps, also sent extra men to the district. Regular and special police wore air-raid helmets to protect them from missiles.

At an afternoon conference with military authorities the Mayor assured Maj. Gen. Thomas A. Terry, commanding the Second Service Command, and Col. John McNulty, provost marshal in charge of the military police, that the disorders were "all cleaned up."

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