The Art-Forms of Music, Letters: S-T

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In music, a term applied to an instrumental composition of a lively, piquant character, admitting sudden and violent contrasts of dynamic shading. The term was originally used as a direction-mark for performers. In the modern sonata or symphony, however, the scherzo is an essential movement. it was first introduced by Beethoven, who greatly extended the form and gave it its special character, in his Second Symphony, where it takes the place of the minuet in the symphonies of Haydn and Mozart. Even in Haydn's time the minuet in the symphony had lost is original stately character, and Beethoven's first scherzo is more like the minuet than the form which he perfected later in the Eroica. Schumann, in the first and second of his symphonies, becomes an innovator through the introduction of two trios, instead of the usual one.


Originally music performed on a calm night; hence a song given under the window of a lady by her lover. The modern serenade (or serenata) is a cyclical composition for full orchestra. It differs from the symphony in the greater number of its movements (5,6,7, or more) and their freer construction.


A term designating a kind of operatic production in great favor during the latter half of the eighteenth century. The singspiel differed from the regular opera of that time in the introduction of modern characters, and in the style of its music, which was a conscious imitation of the style of the German folk songs. The father of the singspiel was Johann Adam Hiller, who wrote simple airs, imitated from the style of folk-songs, for his bourgeois types, and reserved his arias for persons of rank. The principal composers of singspiele were Hiller, Neefe, Reichardt, Schweitzer, Dittersdorf, Kauer, Weigl, Schenk, and Haydn (Der Krumme Teufel).


In music, a piece or passage for a single voice or instrument. In orchestral compositions 'solo' indicates that one instrument is to take the leading part.

SONATA (see separate article)


A short lyric or narrative poem set to music in such a manner that the music reproduces the mood of the poem, and at the same time lends more impassioned utterance to the words. The term song should properly be applied only to compositions for one or two voices with instrumental accompaniment. The art-song (Kunstlied) was developed in Germany from the folk-song. The form has been received with universal favor.


In music, one of the oldest of cyclical forms. It had its origin in the sixteenth century, when the Stadtpfeifer began to perform several national dances in succession, which were of contrasting tempi, but all in the same key. During the seventeenth century German composers for the pianoforte applied the name partita to their doubles (a series of variations). The form reached its culmination in the suites of J.S.Bach. The style of the suite is not so much contrapuntal as 'elegant.' The four obligatory movements are: (1) allemande, (2) courante, (3) sarabande, (4) gigue. As a rule, however, there were more movements, which were inserted after the sarabande. Such additional movements were known as intermezzo. In modern times composers have also written suites for orchestra, which, however, but slightly resemble their prototypes. Some of the movements are not dance forms, and the principle of contrasting keys is also introduced.


In music, a word used in two different senses: (1) The instrumental introduction and termination of a vocal composition, sometimes called ritornello; (2) a composition for a full orchestra, consisting generally for four movements. The most usual though not unvarying order of movements is a brilliant allegro, ushered in by a slow introduction, an adagio or andante, a scherzo with its trio, and the finale, again an allegro. For the origin of the modern symphony we must go back to the beginnings of opera early in the seventeenth century, when the name Sinfonia was given tot he short instrumental prelude which preceded the opera. The early history of the symphony is, therefore, that of the overture. About the middle of the eighteenth century composers began to write separate sinfonie exclusively for concert performance. The three parts of the older overture, which had then only a loose connection, were entirely detached and became separate movements. Haydn introduced a fourth movement, the minuet, which he inserted before the finale. he also adopted for the first movement the sonata form. By individualizing the separate instruments and grouping them in families Haydn also established the symphony orchestra and thus made the symphony what it is today. Beethoven extended the form considerably, particularly the development section of the first movement, and also replaced the minuet by the more elaborate scherzo, Beethoven also increased the orchestra considerably. See Orchestra.


Musical composition in three parts. In music, in a general sense, a composition for three voices or for three instruments. In instrumental music a trio is usually understood to mean a composition written for piano, cello, and violin. But it is better to apply the name piano trio. A string trio is generally written for violin, viola, and cello, or two violins and cello. In a specific sense the term trio is used to denote a middle section in minuets, marches, or scherzi. It derived its name from the fact that the older composers employed three-part writing in this middle section.


Website: The History
Article Name: The Art-Forms of Music Letter: S-T
Researcher/Transcriber Miriam Medina


BIBLIOGRAPHY: From my Collection of Books: The New International Encyclopedia; 1902-1905 Dodd, Mead and Company-New York Total of 21 Volumes
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