Chapter X Pages: 109-114
The Campaign of 1862 (31)
The military operations of 1862
fall naturally into three
distinct periods; in the first
and third the Union armies acted
on the offensive, in the second
on the defensive. (32)
On February 6th General Grant,
who had moved from Cairo up the
Tennessee River, captured Fort
Henry with the assistance of the
gunboat flotilla under Commodore
Foote, (33) and ten days later
Fort Donelson capitulated to him
in response to his demand for
"unconditional surrender." (34)
In the East General Burnside
took Roanoke Island, North
Carolina, on the 8th; (35) a
month later the Merrimac sank
the Congress and the Cumberland,
but was defeated next day by the
Monitor. (36) On March 11th
General McClellan was relieved
of command as generalissimo,
(37) on the 14th New Berne,
North Carolina, fell to
Burnside, (38 and on the 23rd
General Shields was victorious
at Winchester. (39)
The battle of Shiloh took place
on April 6th and 7th, ending
with the retreat of Johnston's
army before Grant, (40) and the
following day General Pope and
the gunboats captured the
important Island No. 10, thus
opening the upper part of the
Mississippi. (41) On the 24th
Rear-Admiral Farragtut destroyed
the Confederate fleet and ran
the gauntlet of Forts St. Philip
and Jackson. Anchoring off New
Orleans next day, he made a
demand for its surrender and on
May 1st the city complied.
Steaming up the river, he took
Baton Rouge and Natchez, and on
June 27th his mortar boats
bombarded Vicksburg but, being
unable to reduce this
stronghold, he ran past the
batteries and joined Foote's
gunboats which had descended
from Cairo. (42)
On March 17th the Army of the
Potomac began its embarkation at
Alexandria, Virginia, its
destination being the peninsula,
up which its advance was
commenced on April 4th. Yorktown
was besieged from the 5th until
May 4th, followed in quick
succession by the battles of
Williamsburg, West Point,
Hanover Court House and Seven
Pines or Fair Oaks. (43) On that
day, June first, the Army of the
Potomac with a fighting strength
of 100,000 was astride of the
Chickahominy River within six
miles of Richmond. (44)
FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER 10
Pages: 109-110 (31-44)
31.No attempt will be made in
this campaign or in those of the
three ensuing years to do more
than sketch in briefest outline
the most important operations.
32. Upton, p. 269.
33. Battles and Leaders, I, pp.
368-372; Personal Recollections
of General U.S. Grant, I, pp.
34. Battles and Leaders, I, pp.
398-428; Grant, I, pp. 294-315;
Swinton, Decisive Battles of the
War, pp. 56-85; Comte de Paris,
I, pp. 471-498; Ropes, II, pp.
The casualties of the Union
forces, army and navy__the
former of which numbered about
27,000__were 2,886; those of the
Confederates under General
Pillow, 231 killed, 1,007
wounded and 13,829 captured.__
Battles and Leaders, I, p. 429;
35. Battles and Leaders, I, pp.
640-645; Comte de Paris, I, pp.
36. Battles and Leaders, I, pp.
692-711; Comte de Paris, I, pp.
591-608; Ropes, I, pp. 243-245.
37. Morse, Abraham Lincoln
(American Statesmen Series), I,
p. 343; Comte de Paris, I, p.
616; McClellan's Own Story, p.
38. Battles and leaders, I, pp.
39. Swinton, Campaigns of the
Army of the Potomac, p. 92;
Battles and Leaders, II, p. 284;
Alexander, p. 62.
40. Battles and Leaders, I, pp.
465-593; Grant, I, pp. 338-370;
Ropes, II, pp. 68-69; Swinton,
Decisive Battles, pp. 86-138;
Comte de Paris, I, pp. 515-561.
The Union army numbered about
59,000, its casualties being
13,047; the Confederate army
amounted to about 40,335 and its
losses were 10,699.__Battles and
Leaders, I, pp. 538-539; Upton,
pp. 272-273; Memoirs of General
W.T. Sherman, I, p . 247; Ropes,
41. Battles and Leaders, I, p.
42. Comte de Paris, II, pp.
153-175; Battles and Leaders,
II, pp. 22-99; III, pp. 551-555.
43. May 5th, May 7th, May 27th,
and June 1st, 1862,
44. Upton, p. 269; Comte de
Paris, II, pp. 1-72; Battles and
Leaders, II, pp. 160-263;
Alexander, pp. 63-108;
McClellan's Own Story, pp.
252-410; Longstreet, pp. 72-102;
Gordon, pp. 47-59.