The Campaign of 1862

 

Chapter X Pages: 109-114

The Campaign of 1862 (31)

The military operations of 1862 fall naturally into three distinct periods; in the first and third the Union armies acted on the offensive, in the second on the defensive. (32)

On February 6th General Grant, who had moved from Cairo up the Tennessee River, captured Fort Henry with the assistance of the gunboat flotilla under Commodore Foote, (33) and ten days later Fort Donelson capitulated to him in response to his demand for "unconditional surrender." (34) In the East General Burnside took Roanoke Island, North Carolina, on the 8th; (35) a month later the Merrimac sank the Congress and the Cumberland, but was defeated next day by the Monitor. (36) On March 11th General McClellan was relieved of command as generalissimo, (37) on the 14th New Berne, North Carolina, fell to Burnside, (38 and on the 23rd General Shields was victorious at Winchester. (39)

The battle of Shiloh took place on April 6th and 7th, ending with the retreat of Johnston's army before Grant, (40) and the following day General Pope and the gunboats captured the important Island No. 10, thus opening the upper part of the Mississippi. (41) On the 24th Rear-Admiral Farragtut destroyed the Confederate fleet and ran the gauntlet of Forts St. Philip and Jackson. Anchoring off New Orleans next day, he made a demand for its surrender and on May 1st the city complied. Steaming up the river, he took Baton Rouge and Natchez, and on June 27th his mortar boats bombarded Vicksburg but, being unable to reduce this stronghold, he ran past the batteries and joined Foote's gunboats which had descended from Cairo. (42)

On March 17th the Army of the Potomac began its embarkation at Alexandria, Virginia, its destination being the peninsula, up which its advance was commenced on April 4th. Yorktown was besieged from the 5th until May 4th, followed in quick succession by the battles of Williamsburg, West Point, Hanover Court House and Seven Pines or Fair Oaks. (43) On that day, June first, the Army of the Potomac with a fighting strength of 100,000 was astride of the Chickahominy River within six miles of Richmond. (44)

FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER 10 Pages: 109-110 (31-44)

31.No attempt will be made in this campaign or in those of the three ensuing years to do more than sketch in briefest outline the most important operations.

32. Upton, p. 269.

33. Battles and Leaders, I, pp. 368-372; Personal Recollections of General U.S. Grant, I, pp. 284-293.

34. Battles and Leaders, I, pp. 398-428; Grant, I, pp. 294-315; Swinton, Decisive Battles of the War, pp. 56-85; Comte de Paris, I, pp. 471-498; Ropes, II, pp. 18-35.

The casualties of the Union forces, army and navy__the former of which numbered about 27,000__were 2,886; those of the Confederates under General Pillow, 231 killed, 1,007 wounded and 13,829 captured.__ Battles and Leaders, I, p. 429; Upton, p.270.

35. Battles and Leaders, I, pp. 640-645; Comte de Paris, I, pp. 562-590.

36. Battles and Leaders, I, pp. 692-711; Comte de Paris, I, pp. 591-608; Ropes, I, pp. 243-245.

37. Morse, Abraham Lincoln (American Statesmen Series), I, p. 343; Comte de Paris, I, p. 616; McClellan's Own Story, p. 3225.

38. Battles and leaders, I, pp. 647-652.

39. Swinton, Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, p. 92; Battles and Leaders, II, p. 284; Alexander, p. 62.

40. Battles and Leaders, I, pp. 465-593; Grant, I, pp. 338-370; Ropes, II, pp. 68-69; Swinton, Decisive Battles, pp. 86-138; Comte de Paris, I, pp. 515-561.

The Union army numbered about 59,000, its casualties being 13,047; the Confederate army amounted to about 40,335 and its losses were 10,699.__Battles and Leaders, I, pp. 538-539; Upton, pp. 272-273; Memoirs of General W.T. Sherman, I, p . 247; Ropes, II, 89.

41. Battles and Leaders, I, p. 445.

42. Comte de Paris, II, pp. 153-175; Battles and Leaders, II, pp. 22-99; III, pp. 551-555.

43. May 5th, May 7th, May 27th, and June 1st, 1862, respectively.

44. Upton, p. 269; Comte de Paris, II, pp. 1-72; Battles and Leaders, II, pp. 160-263; Alexander, pp. 63-108; McClellan's Own Story, pp. 252-410; Longstreet, pp. 72-102; Gordon, pp. 47-59.

 

Website: The History Box.com
Article Name: The Campaign of 1862
Researcher/Transcriber Miriam Medina

Source:

BIBLIOGRAPHY: From my collection of Books: The Military Unpreparedness of the United States- A History of American Land Forces from Colonial Times until June 1, 1915. By Frederic Louis Huidekoper; Publisher: The Macmillan Company-New York 1916
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