Chapter X Pages: 110-112
"During this period the
Government and the Confederates
conducted the war on contrary
principles. The Government
sought to save the Union by
fighting as a Confederacy; the
Confederates sought to destroy
it by fighting as a nation. The
Government recognized the
States, appealed to them for
troops, adhered to voluntary
enlistments, gave the governors
power to appoint all
commissioned officers and
encouraged them to organize new
regiments. The Confederates
abandoned State sovereignty,
appealed directly to the people,
took away from them the power to
appoint commissioned officers,
vested their appointment in the
Confederate President, refused
to organize war regiments,
abandoned voluntary enlistments,
and adopting the republican
principle that every citizen
owes his country military
service, called into the army
every white man between the ages
of 18 and 35. " (45)
On June first General Robert E.
Lee assumed command of the Army
of Northern Virginia then in the
vicinity of Richmond, (46) but
he waited until a series of
successes in the Shenandoah
Valley (47) permitted General
"Stonewall" Jackson to join him
with some 18,500 men, (48) and,
in conjunction with other
re-enforcements that reached him
during the month, enabled him to
concentrate about 90,000 troops
(49) behind entrenched lines
between the James and
Chickahominy rivers, in close
proximity to McClellan whose
army numbered 105,445. (50) On
June 26th Lee assumed the
offensive and the "Seven Days'
Campaign" began. A succession of
hard-fought battles (51) ended
in a bloody repulse of the
Confederates at Malvern Hill on
July 1st, after which McClellan
withdrew his army from Richmond.
The Federal Government then
endeavored to unite at Aquia
Creek (53) the scattered armies
under McClellan, Burnside and
Pope, (54) but Lee had meanwhile
begun his advance toward
Washington. (55) On August 9th,
his van under Jackson attacked
General Banks at Cedar Mountain,
(56) but a spirited engagement
(57) compelled the former to
fall back across the Rapidan and
to await re-enforcements. On the
29th and 30th Bull Run witnessed
a second victory for the South,
(58) which drove Pope within the
fortifications of Washington.
(59) On September 4th the
Confederate army crossed the
Potomac near Leesburg, (60) and
four days later General Lee
issued at Frederick a
proclamation inviting the people
of Maryland to join the Southern
In the West the Confederates
were equally successful. General
Bragg's army was increased to
50,000 men by conscription,
turned Buell's flank, threatened
Nashville, captured the garrison
of 2,100 men at Mumfordsville on
September 17th, menaced
Louisville and marched to
Frankfort, Kentucky, where he
was joined by the 3rd Corps
under General Kirby Smith which
had defeated Nelson at Richmond,
Ky., on August 29th and had
advanced within 50 miles of
Cincinnati. On September 13th
General Price captured Luka,
Mississippi, and on October 4th
General Rosecrans inflicted a
severe repulse on a Confederate
force of 22,000 under Van Dorn
and Price, which attempted to
drive him out of his
entrenchments at Corinth,
"With the exception of the
victories of Luka and Corinth an
unbroken chain of disasters
marked the second period of
1862. (63) The withdrawal of the
Army of the Potomac from the
James River to Washington and
Alexandria, the invasion of
Maryland, and the retreat of the
Army of the Ohio to Louisville,
(64) produced a depression in
the public mind nearly as great
as that which succeeded the
battle of Bull Run. " (65)
FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER 10
Pages: 110-112 (45-65)
45. Upton, p. 275.
46. Alexander, p. 109; Long, p.
47. At McDowell on May 8th;
Front Royal, May 23rd;
Winchester, May 25th;
Charlestown and Harper's Ferry,
May 28th; Cross Keys, June 8th;
ending with Port Republic on the
9th.__Alexander, pp. 94-108;
Battles and Leaders, II, pp.
48. Alexander, p. 112.
49. Battles and Leaders, II, p.
317; Ropes, p. 164.
50. Official Records, XI, Part
II, p. 238; Battles and Leaders,
II, p. 315; Ropes, p. 159.
51. Mechanicsville on June 26th;
Gaines' Mills, June 27th; Savage
Station, June 29th; White Oaks
Swamp and Charles City Cross
Roads, June 30th.
52. Battles and Leaders, II, pp.
180-187, 319-427; Comte de
Paris, II, pp. 73-148; Swinton,
pp. 140-165; Ropes, II, pp.
170-212; Alexander, pp. 107-174;
McClellan's Own Story, pp.
410-440; Long, pp. 170-177
Longstreet, pp. 120-152; Gordon,
The Union losses were 1,734
killed, 8,062 wounded and 6,053
captured or missing, a total of
The Confederates had 3,286
killed, 15,909 wounded and 949
missing or captured, the total
being 20,135.__Battles and
Leaders, II, pp. 315-and 317;
Alexander, p. 171.
McClellan, pp. 440 agrees with
the above estimate of the Union
losses, but gives those of the
Confederates at 19,749.
53. Near Alexandria, Virginia.
54. On August 4th Burnside with
8,000 men__who had been
withdrawn from North Carolina
(p.110) to Fort Monroe__reached
Aquia Creek, and on the 14th
McClellan started his movement
from Harrison's Landing.
On June 26th General Pope
(p.110) was appointed to the
command of the Army of Virginia
composed of the forces under
Fremont, Banks and McDowell, and
next day fixed his headquarters
at Washington, but it was not
until August 1st that he started
to concentrate his army in the
direction of Gordonsville.
On July 11th the command of the
Union armies was given to
General H.W. Halleck as
General-in-Chief, but he did not
reach Washington from the West
until the 22nd.
55. On July 27th.__Alexander, p.
56. Jackson had about 24,000
troops: Banks about
17,900.__Ibid, P. 180; Battles
and Leaders, II, p. 496.
57. The Union losses were 2,381;
the Confederate, 1,365.__Battles
and Leaders, II, p. 496.
58. Pope's army was so scattered
that he went into action with
only 35,000 (Ropes, II, p. 282),
but he subsequently concentrated
his forces to the number of from
63 to 65,000. The Total
Confederate strength was in the
neighbourhood of 54,000.__Ibid,
II, pp. 497-500; Alexander, pp.
204, 211; Ropes, II, pp. 275,
The losses in this battle have
never been separately reported.
59. Alexander, p. 218; LOng, pp.
182-200; Longstreet, pp.
60. Ropes, II, p. 329.
61. Upton, p. 276; Long, pp.
207-209. The Union losses in
this campaign from the
Rappahannock to the Potomac were
14,462, the Confederate
9,474.__Battles and Leaders, II,
pp. 499-500. Alexander, p. 219,
gives Lee's losses as 9,112.
62. The Army of the Mississippi
numbered 23,077 and its
casualties amounted to 2,520;
the Army of West Tennessee under
Van Dorn was "about 22,000 men"
and its losses 4,838.__Official
Records, XVII, Part I, pp. 246
and 378; Battles and Leaders,
II, p. 760.
63. Accounts of this campaign
are given by the Comte de Paris,
II, pp. 360-417; Battles and
Leaders, II, pp. 717-759; Grant,
Memoirs, I, pp. 394-421; Greene,
The Mississippi (Campaigns of
the Civil War series), pp.
29-54; Upton, pp. 276-277.
64. This was due to the
dispersion by Halleck's orders
of the army of 120,000 which had
entered Corinth on May 30th,
coupled with the bold offensive
of Bragg. These two factors
reduced the Union armies in the
West to a passive
defensive.__Grant, I, pp. 383,
394-395; Greene, p. 35; Ropes,
II, pp. 95, 218 and 384.
65. Upton, p. 277.